Read each of the discussion posts and give a reply to each in 250 words each. Ea

Read each of the discussion posts and give a reply to each in 250 words each. Each reply must incorporate at least 1 scholarly citation in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include the textbook, the Bible, etc.
Respond to each of the following:
1.    Pay-for-Performance in the Public Sector: To Be or Not to Be
This report examines two issues: Whether pay should be connected to performance in government employment and whether there are salient characteristics of an effective pay-for-performance or PFP program. On the latter issue, this work identifies what those characteristics might be. Finally, government employees who believe in God should consider a biblical worldview in approaching job performance. This work thus concludes with a covenantal synthesis.
The Utility of PFP in the Public Sector
The first issue is whether pay-for-performance or PFP should exist in public sector performance management, irrespective of whether the financial inducement to work hard is a one-time bonus, a permanent raise, or another form of compensation. PFP should exist, and it does, although there are detractors. The federal government is a good place to start in the public sector because performance pay exists there. Performance pay is codified in the “federal personnel management” provisions of the United States Code. The statute, which applies to executive branch agencies and the Government Publishing Office, reads, in part, “Equal pay should be provided for work of equal value [and] appropriate incentives and recognition should be provided for excellence in performance” (Merit System Principles, 2014).
This federal merit pay system, as we know it today, began with the passage of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. Ideally, pay-for-performance would make excellent workers feel great about being on the team. The system is also intended to nudge underachievers to improve or leave. The program may even help the federal government attract recent college graduates (Nigro et al., 2013). Nevertheless, one might say, there is a cloud in this silver lining.
The National Academy of Sciences asserts there is “no evidence” that PFP improves performance. Additionally, Pearce and Perry did a study in 1983 that found no aggregate motivational boost from PFP. The study cited a pair of possible reasons: PFP may make workers focus on individual performance to the detriment of team performance. Further, the quest for more money may instill “conflict” in the ranks (p. 162).
Bae (2023) examined many studies favorable and unfavorable toward PFP and concluded that the success of PFP in motivating workers depends on the system’s ability to link performance directly to the rewards, which is easier said than done in the public sector because it lacks the profit motif on which the private sector operates; hence, although the public sector can have “ambiguous goals and conflicting values,” individual-based PFP—not group-based PFP—can bolster “employees’ satisfaction with their pay, organizations, and jobs” (p. 605). Ironically, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration uses a combination of  “individual and collective pay for performance systems” (p. 601). Appropriately expanding the use of PFP, the Department of Veterans Affairs will add optometrists to those medical professionals who will be eligible for performance pay if the VA Clinician Appreciation, Recruitment, Education, Expansion, and Retention Support (CAREERS) Act, S. 10, passes Congress and is signed by President Joseph R. Biden Jr. (CAREERS Act, 2023).
Having asserted that PFP is and should be used in the public sector to improve performance, the second issue surfaces: the characteristics of a sound system.
Characteristics of PFP Done Right
This analysis will raise three features of PFP that federal agencies should ensure they instill in their programs. But, first, the federal civil service can study, and perhaps borrow from, public education. Pham et al. (2021) overviewed several education studies that dealt with what the authors termed “performance-based human resource management,” on which performance pay is based (p. 323). The bottom line is that federal PFP can help to recruit and retain personnel and, at the same time, motivate (p. 557). For instance, Washington state operates a Challenging Schools Bonus program that awards certified teachers a bonus of up to $5,000 to teach in “high-poverty schools.” The program has increased the percentage of such teachers (p. 558).
The federal government applies this concept from time to time to attract and retain workers, especially in medical fields. The CAREERS Act, noted above, is one such use. This report’s education example leads us back to those characteristics of a sound PFP program particularly applicable to the federal workforce. Lee (2019) hypothesized that there are three keys to motivating employees in the public sector. First, PFP requires simple and plain statements of goals and objectives that establish what employees “are expected to accomplish” (p. 327). Second, FPF necessitates a fair employee evaluation process, featuring performance ratings that guide employees on what they must do to improve (p. 328). Third, employees must be “satisfied with post[-]assessment feedback” (p. 329).
“Feedback” is also crucial when it comes from God, which draws this work to its conclusion.
Covenantal Synthesis
This discussion does not delve into whether PFP existed in the span during which the Bible was written; nevertheless, Jesus says, “[R]eward every man according to his works” (New Scofield Reference Bible, 1967, Matthew 16:27). Just as important as working hard and being compensated well is living a Godly life in and out of work by “follow[ing] righteousness, faith, love, [and] peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart” (2 Timothy 2:22). The word of God always stresses the priorities in life.
References
Bae, K. B. (2023). The differing effects of individual- and group-based pay for performance on employee satisfaction: The role of the perceived fairness of performance evaluations. Public Management Review, 25(3), 601-619. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2021.1988270
Lee, H.-W. (2019). Performance-based human resource management and federal employee’s motivation: Moderating roles of goal-clarifying intervention, appraisal fairness, and feedback satisfaction. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 39(3), 323-348. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734371X17721300
Merit System Principles, 5 U.S.C. § 2301 (2014). https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/5/2301
Nigro, L. G., Nigro, F. A., & Kellough, J. E. (2013). The new public personnel administration (7th ed.). Cengage Learning.
Pham, L. D., Nguyen, T. D., & Springer, M. G. (2021). Teacher merit pay: A meta-analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 58(3), 527-566. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831220905580
Scofield, C. I. (1967). The New Scofield Reference Bible. Oxford University Press.
VA Clinician Appreciation, Recruitment, Education, Expansion, and Retention Support Act, S. 10, 118th Cong. (2023). https://www.congress.gov/118/bills/s10/BILLS-118s10is.pdf
2.           My response is no , because some people when got the job, they gonna took everything relax at work. That happen at the public service from Puerto Rico, like the politics, they contract people that cooperated with them on the campaign, but them doesn’t have the experience to do that type of work duties. In Puerto Rico at the capitol hills, contract people like families, friends of the same politics, and that people doesn’t have the studies for doing its work duties, and then the have to need to contract another person to help them to do the work duties. Also, that people have the best salaries for doing nothing at job. Finally,that is very sad because people like my friends that they are have studies and preparation don’t get at job in any place. 
In my agency “Protection and Advocacy of Puerto Rico”, in when we are helping people with disabilities, contract people with the studies necessaries for the work duties. For example, for getting the job you need to spend for a interview, then you recollect point is you have a master or PhD degrees is a point , if you have experience at the work is another point, if you are military, if you have disabilities, and then this determine if you was selected for the job. Finally, if you was selected your wages is according for the points that you recollected in your interview. Anda that is great and I am agree with that because is fair.
So, I think we are not supposed to have pay tied, because is a fault of respect to people like us that we have studies and/or another people with experience at the job. Also, this is unfair because if a gave the mile extra how as said in my country, and other people that are not doing nothing don’t should to have the same wages like me. I am doing this Doctor in Public Administration for getting a best job offer, for getting experience, for getting better my English, and because I want to become someday  in agency Director of any cultural agency , either disabilities rights agency, or non- profit organization. 
The perfect performance management is “ as it encompasses activities such as joint goal setting, continuous progress review and frequent communication , feedback and coaching for improved performance, implantations of employee development programs and rewarding achievements” (Sifunda, 2017)  My boss did that with us, she make a feedback our job, we have communication with her and she said to us in what area should be to improve our skills ,and in where areas we are working very well at job. Also, she said we have this goal to this month  we need to complete all, so if we can do it, I am going to give food that I cook at my house if we achieve the goal. And on that way we have two goals, complete with the job duties and then taste her food that she cooks for us. Finally, she gave us a photo with the Psalm 23 as said “. The Lord in my shepherd, I shall not want……. “ He restores my soul, He learns me in paths of righteousness for his name’s sake”.That bible’s verse make me feel in peace at the work and that motivate to me to work better at job. So , for that reason I think that this performance management is a great skills to lead a program. Because is a way to get the better feel of the employees to improve their skills at job, motivate to them to obtain training, and certification for getting better theirs job and be more efficient. In my work we are using mindfulness for motivate the employees of agency.  This activities help us to resolve the problems at job “ The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 2001Links to an external site.) posits that positive emotions broaden our thought and action repertoire, which in turn is associated with better decision-making, problem-solving, and proactive behaviour (Fay & Sonnentag, 2012Links to an external site.; Hayward, Forster, Sarasvathy, & Fredrickson, 2010Links to an external site.).“ Finally, as said in the investigation the mindfulness is positive at jobs, because is a way of intervention in when reschedules our emotions of negative to positive and we can improve skills to being relaxed at job. In my agency one time on the month we have meeting of mindfulness or therapy in group, for how to motivate our partner at job, how we can help other people at job, and how to learn to fight with the burnout in our job and lives.
Reference: 
Sifuna-Evelia, M. (2017). Human resource management practices: A Biblical Perspective. Partridge Publishing Singapore.
Psalm 23 (KJV). (n.d.). Bible Gateway. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm%2023&version=KJVLinks to an external site.
Michel, A., Groß, C., Hoppe, A., González‐Morales, M. G., Steidle, A., & O’Shea, D. (2021). Mindfulness and positive activities at work: Intervention effects on motivation‐related constructs, sleep quality, and fatigue. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 94(2), 309–337. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12345

Please organize by the following prompts; with the main focus being San Bernardi

Please organize by the following prompts; with the main focus being San Bernardino community college district
1. Pick an Organization:  san Bernardino Community College district 
·     
organization
for which you will develop a strategic plan. This could be government agency or
anon-profit organization.
2. Environmental Analysis:
·     
Identify some internal and external threats
and opportunities of the chosen organization.
·     
Internal Analysis: Evaluate the
organization’s strengths and weaknesses. Could include financial resources, operational
capabilities, governance structure, or culture.
·     
External Analysis: Analyze the
organization’s operating environment. Utilize appropriate analytical tools such
as SWOT analysis.
3. Vision, Mission, and Values:
Develop a vision statement that defines the organization’s
aspirations.
Write a mission statement that outlines the purpose, values, and
core activities of the organization.
Define a set of core values that guide the organization.
4. Strategic Goals and Objectives:
Based on the environmental analysis and organizational vision,
mission, and values, establish strategic goals and SMART objectives
(Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound).
Ensure alignment between the goals and the organization’s vision and
mission.
5. Strategic Initiatives and Action
Plans:
Identify strategic initiatives and action plans to achieve the
established goals and objectives.
Develop detailed plans outlining the tasks, timelines, responsible
parties, and resource requirements for each initiative.
6. Implementation and Monitoring:
Discuss how the strategic plan will be implemented within the
organization.
Propose a monitoring and evaluation framework to track the progress
of strategic initiatives.
Identify key performance indicators (KPIs) to measure the success of
the strategic plan.
7. Conclusion:
Offer a short reflection summary of the strategic planning process
and lessons learned from assignment.

Apply concepts related to ethics in a specific, researched public administration

Apply concepts related to ethics in a specific, researched public administration case study. Whatever source is used for the actual case study must focus on a real-world public administration situation that is being discussed and analyzed in the chosen article.
The article can be qualitative or quantitative in nature, but it must specifically focus on the public administration context.
Remember to synthesize your research and findings with the required readings and presentations for this week and a Biblical/covenantal model of statesmanship, leadership and organizational behavior.
required readings:
https://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1528&context=gov_fac_pubs&_ga=2.32023805.2101279360.1620655521-1397614022.1618237131
https://www.doi.gov/ethics/government-wide-ethics-laws
https://go.openathens.net/redirector/liberty.edu?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tandfonline.com%2Fdoi%2Fabs%2F10.2753%2FPIN1099-9922130405
https://shibbolethsp.jstor.org/start?entityID=https%3A%2F%2Fshibboleth.liberty.edu%2Fidp%2Fshibboleth&dest=https://www.jstor.org/stable/976801&site=jstor
https://liberty.alma.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/openurl?institution=01LIBU_INST&vid=01LIBU_INST:Services&?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=The%20Ethics%20and%20Politics%20of%20Torture&rft.jtitle=Public%20Administration%20Review&rft.au=Einolf,%20Christopher&rft.date=2016-03-01&rft.issn=0033-3352&rft.eissn=1540-6210&rft.volume=76&rft.issue=2&rft.spage=354&rft.epage=357&rft_id=info:doi/10.1111/puar.12516&rft.externalDBID=n/a&rft.externalDocID=10_1111_puar_12516%C2%B6mdict=en-US

Using your previous area threat/backgrounder/policy options, explain to your key

Using your previous area threat/backgrounder/policy options, explain to your key policymaker  what role EACH PLAYER ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY STAGE will play in implementing your policy recommendation in Assignment #2.  (attached). 
In other words, you need to explain each player in the National Security Enterprise to your new policymaker. What do they do, and how will they implement your recommendation? 
Use our course readings to describe for your new boss what each player does and how they will react to your policy recommendation. Let him/her know what to expect next. (Get creative; anticipate how this policy will play on the national security stage)   
Also, consult the attached template.
Although most comprehensive memos do not include citations, this one will. You need to cite ALL of your information. 
Do not copy the previous assignments in this one. Build on them, but do not repeat them.  
Technical Requirements
Your paper must be at a minimum of 10-12 pages (the Title and Reference pages do not count towards the minimum limit).
Scholarly and credible references should be used. A good rule of thumb is to use at least two scholarly sources per page of content.
Type in Times New Roman, 12 point, and double space.
Students will follow the current Turabian Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework. Make sure to include access dates as applicable.
Points will be deducted for using Wikipedia or encyclopedic-type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.

Please organize by the following prompts; with the main focus being San Bernardi

Please organize by the following prompts; with the main focus being San Bernardino community college district
1. Pick an Organization:  san Bernardino Community College district 
·     
organization
for which you will develop a strategic plan. This could be government agency or
anon-profit organization.
2. Environmental Analysis:
·     
Identify some internal and external threats
and opportunities of the chosen organization.
·     
Internal Analysis: Evaluate the
organization’s strengths and weaknesses. Could include financial resources, operational
capabilities, governance structure, or culture.
·     
External Analysis: Analyze the
organization’s operating environment. Utilize appropriate analytical tools such
as SWOT analysis.
3. Vision, Mission, and Values:
Develop a vision statement that defines the organization’s
aspirations.
Write a mission statement that outlines the purpose, values, and
core activities of the organization.
Define a set of core values that guide the organization.
4. Strategic Goals and Objectives:
Based on the environmental analysis and organizational vision,
mission, and values, establish strategic goals and SMART objectives
(Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound).
Ensure alignment between the goals and the organization’s vision and
mission.
5. Strategic Initiatives and Action
Plans:
Identify strategic initiatives and action plans to achieve the
established goals and objectives.
Develop detailed plans outlining the tasks, timelines, responsible
parties, and resource requirements for each initiative.
6. Implementation and Monitoring:
Discuss how the strategic plan will be implemented within the
organization.
Propose a monitoring and evaluation framework to track the progress
of strategic initiatives.
Identify key performance indicators (KPIs) to measure the success of
the strategic plan.
7. Conclusion:
Offer a short reflection summary of the strategic planning process
and lessons learned from assignment.

The readings this week introduced you to public administration. Given the readin

The readings this week introduced you to public administration. Given the readings choose a current event (or multiple news articles)  that illustrates the following: 1. Public administration in action; 2. public service values. Explain how each of the articles chosen exemplifies a specific reading from this week. Support your statements using APA citations (cite the assigned readings). The length of the assignment should be no more than one page double spaced, using Times New Roman Font 10.  Be sure to not simply describe or provide a perfunctory answer. The purpose of this assignment is to encourage your critical thinking and analysis by questioning and connecting what you have learned in the classroom to real-world events. 

After completing the two Perusall Readings, The School Superintendent as Adminis

After completing the two Perusall Readings, The School Superintendent as Administrator &To Change the World Become a Bureaucrat, complete the following Critical Analysis assignment:
What is the purpose of the reading(s)? How do you know? Provide evidence (from the reading(s0). 
What is the author(s) thesis?
Why does it matter to public administration?
Do you agree or disagree with the author(s) thesis?  Why? Provide evidence (from the reading(s).
Make sure to use APA Format and provide citations to support your evidence. The responses should be no more than two pages double-spaced, using Times New Roman 12 pt. Font
Cite evidence, using APA in-text citations, from the assigned reading.  Feel free to cite from any of the assigned readings additionally. 
LINK TO ARTICLES:  

To Change the World, Become a Bureaucrat (Or Better Yet, a Herocrat)

The School Superintendent as Public Administrator

No copy/paste In text citation  Please provide plagiarism report  WHAT DO I FOCU

No copy/paste
In text citation 
Please provide plagiarism report 
WHAT DO I FOCUS ON?
Your paper must focus on the “public” sector personnel issues, not private sector personnel. There are many ethical, leadership, organizational strategies, behavioral,  personal motivation, etc. studies and academic journal articles that may have been accomplished on “private” sector human resources that are appropriate and can cross over to public personnel in support of your topic.  When “public” personnel share so many homogeneous characteristics with “private” personnel, it is not an unreasonable assumption to believe civil servants share many of the same “behavioral traits” that all private sector personnel exhibit.  Thus, carefully assess your academic journal articles and studies as sources that reflect the understanding of the homogeneous characteristics between public and private sector employees while focusing your paper on addressing just the public sector personnel.    Go a step further if you are not sure of the connection to a private-sector study by providing support of the source in your discussion and pointing out why that particular source concerning the “private” sector still applies to the “public” sector employees.  As researchers, we must always assess sources in this way. 
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PAPER: 
Sources must be cited in the text of the document as well as on the reference page in APA format.
The paper must have 2400 words minimum *minimums should be exceeded  *anything less than the word count is an incomplete assignment receiving little credit if any
12 font Times New Roman double-spaced
Reference page and in-text citations must be in proper APA format (both citations and academic references must be the same in the document and on the reference page: in other words, I should see all references on the reference page that are also cited in the text of the paper).
title page (see the reference page below for the format of the title page) 
No abstract or outline  (do not include)
Graduate-level writing- a comprehensive, well-thought-out well edited, supporting thesis with topic sentences and citing refereed journal articles and government documents in each paragraph on the chosen approved topic
All areas below must be checked off on the Checklist to meet the minimum standards of the paper. Fill out checklist but do not submit it.
No plagiarism, no direct quotes, no use of AI ChatGPT cited reference in text and on the reference page and
FORMAT YOUR PAPER:  To help with formatting your paper, see this and click hereLinks to an external site. to pull up the link. Again, do not include an abstract, as it does not count toward your word count.  
HOW TO START WRITING MY COURSE PAPER  AND ORGANIZE IT WITH SOURCES:
This is a course term paper, not a research methods paper which is different. See how to set up this paper for your course term paper.
Introduction. Have a hook statement that makes the reader interested. This can be stats or an interesting point made by an expert.  Follow this with a transition sentence that ties the hook statement to the thesis. Then place your thesis.  So in reality you are talking about your problem or subject and then providing them with the thesis sentence your paper will support.  The hook and transition statement or statements help to introduce your thesis statement and explain the objectives that have been set. The introduction paragraph should not be less than three sentences and can be three sentences as long as they are a hook, transition, and your thesis.  If you need a couple more sentences to transition to your thesis you can add those.
Body Paragraphs. As a rule, in writing college term papers, one must write down several Topic Sentences to divide ideas and arguments into several paragraphs (at least enough paragraphs to meet your WC). As done below, each body paragraph should contain one idea and a strong topic sentence followed by factual evidence to prove the idea or statement.  Factual evidence needs to come from “academic  sources.”  Peer-reviewed Journals or government websites in which you have had the opportunity to begin research. *Please note copying any part of your worksheet is not to take place in your paper or it is self-plagiarizing. The worksheet is to help you gather sources not directly write part of your paper as you were answering questions for the sources used in the paper not supporting topic sentences you have written. 
For example, your paragraphs will cover possibly:
Topic Sentence:  History of the argument and background.
A) How does your issue impact society and the academic environment?
b) Critical factors related to your research problem.
c) Possible solutions that will be explored in your paper.
Topic Sentence: Extent of the problem that you write about.
A) Strong point made and supported with factual evidence
B) counterarguments to the topic point (you can use a countering reference) and then provide factual evidence as to why the counterarguments are not true.
Topic Sentence: Effects of the problem and possible causes.
A) strong point made with factual evidence
B) less strong point made with factual evidence
Topic Sentence: Best practices noted in government to work the issue
A) same as above paragraphs; you can use points only or address answers why counter points are not correct or list several points to support your topic sentence with factual evidence from your research.
Topic Sentence: Possible solutions and outcomes.
Same as above.
Conclusion. The final part should represent a strong summary and a response to your thesis statement. This paragraph is shorter than the other topic-supporting paragraphs.