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Breast Cancer Case Study Discussion

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Breast Cancer Case Study Discussion 1

About 5% to 10% of all breast cancers are hereditary, and genetic mutations are the cause of 80% of breast cancers in women below the age of 50 years. There are two breast cancer susceptibility genes; the BRCA1 on chromosome 17 and BRCA2 on chromosome 13 and they account for most inherited forms of breast cancer. (Norris T., 2019).
Genetic factors significantly contribute to the risk of early-onset breast cancer. In the United States, approximately 5 to 10% of BC cases are believed to have a hereditary risk. (Shen et al.,2021). However, these percentages are higher in a subset of women with early-onset breast cancer, familial history, or triple-negative breast cancer, i.e., estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, respectively) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative, based on immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the cumulative risk of developing breast cancer by age 50 in sisters and mothers of patients under 40 years old with breast cancer was 6 and 3 times higher than the average population, respectively. (Saleem et al., 2016).

The genetic factors that may have been involved in the patient’s risk for developing breast cancer are the BRCA1 found on chromosome 17 as well as the BRCA2 found on chromosome 13.
Invasive breast cancer is defined as Breast cancers that have spread into surrounding breast tissue are known as invasive breast cancers. Most breast cancers are invasive, but there are different types of invasive breast cancer. The two most common are invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. (American Cancer Society 2021). While carcinoma in situ is when cell changes show up as cancerous under a microscope, and they have not spread beyond where they first formed. The words “in situ” mean “in its original place.” These in situ cells are not malignant, or cancerous.
Our knowledge of the tumor receptors is vital in the treatment of breast cancer because it identifies the specific genes and receptors that need to be isolated, and treatment is specifically targeted at those receptors. A prime example is the use of Herceptin to stop the growth of breast tumors that express the HER2/neu receptors on the surface of the cell. The HER 2/neu receptor binds an epidermal growth factor that contributes to cancer cell growth.
Reference

American Cancer Society (2021) Medical and Editorial team review. Website https://www.cancer.gov.

National Cancer Institute, current catalog review (2023). https://www.cancer.gov.
Norris, T. (2019). Porth’s Pathophysiology; Concepts of altered health states (10th edition). Wolters Kluwer.

Shen L, Zhang S, Wang K, Wang X. Familial Breast Cancer: Disease-Related Gene Mutations and Screening Strategies for Chinese Population. Front Oncol. 2021; 11:740227. ]

Saleem M, Ghazali MB, Wahab MAMA, Yusoff NM, Mahsin H, Seng CE, Khalid IA, Rahman MNG, Yahaya BH. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in Early-Onset Breast Cancer Patients. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020; 1292:1–12. 10.1007/5584_2018_147.

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